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MSG and Cancer
Glutamic acid (glutamate) as it exists in its unadulterated
form in nature, is an acidic amino acid that will be
found in abundance in both plant and animal protein where it is tied to
other amino acids in long chains.
Processed free glutamic acid (MSG) is different. MSG
used in food, dietary supplements, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and vaccines is produced
commercially in manufacturing and/or chemical plants, and/or by fermentation.
There are six basic methods for producing MSG.
Glutamate can be freed from protein through autolysis, acid hydrolysis,
enzymolysis (hydrolysis using enzymes), and/or fermentation of protein
(2-4). Glutamate can also be produced by combining specific amino
acids, reducing sugars, animal or vegetable fats or oils, and optional
ingredients including hydrolyzed vegetable protein(5,13).
Its products are often referred to as "processed flavors" or
These first five methods for producing MSG all produce processed free glutamic acid (MSG) in combination with other amino acids. Processed free glutamic acid (MSG) can also be produced as a single amino acid using bacterial fermentation, a process whereby carefully selected genetically modified bacteria secrete free glutamic acid through their cell walls(6). Today, this method of bacterial fermentation is used to produce much, if not all, of the free glutamic acid used by the pharmaceutical industry, and is also used to produce the food ingredient monosodium glutamate.
All processed free glutamic acid (MSG) is neurotoxic (kills brain cells) and is endocrine disrupting (damages the endocrine system). In addition, all processed free glutamic acid (MSG) will cause adverse reactions ranging from feelings of mild discomfort or simple skin rash to such things as irritable bowel, asthma, migraine headache, mood swings, heart irregularities, asthma, seizures, and depression when the amount of MSG ingested exceeds a person's MSG-tolerance level.
All processed free glutamic acid (MSG), no matter how produced, is accompanied by unwanted by-products of production. These unwanted by-products of production are referred to as impurities. Impurities are invariably produced by all methods used for breaking down protein (autolysis, enzymolysis, and acid hydrolysis)(4,8-12), by all methods used to produce monosodium glutamate(7), and by all methods use to produce reaction or processed flavors (5,13).
When acid hydrolysis is used to free amino acids from protein, the impurities produced included carcinogenic mono and dichloro propanols(4,12). Reaction flavors produced through a maillard reaction may contain carcinogenic heterocyclic amines(13).
If you have questions about carcinogenic propanols in hydrolyzed protein products, we suggest you refer to the National Toxicology Program (NTP) of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Review of Toxicological Literature, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission Position Paper on Chloropropanols.
2. Maloney D. Yeasts. In: Kirk RE, Othmer DF, Kroschwitz JI, Howe-Grant M. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Vol. 25. New York: Wiley, 1992: 785-788.
3. Ajinomoto Co., Inc.Monosodium Glutamate (MSG). In: Hui
YH, ed. Encyclopedia of food science and technology, Vol
3. New York: Wiley, 1991: 1833-1836.
4. Pommer K. New Proteoloytic enzymes for the production of savory ingredients. Cereal Foods World.1995;40(10):745-748.
5. Lin LJ. Regulatory status of maillard reactions flavors, Washington DC: Division of Food and Color Additives, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration. Paper presented at a meeting of the American Chemical Society, August 24, 1992.
6. Leung A, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. New York: Wiley, 1996: 373-375.
7. Deki M, Echizen A, Temma T. Minor components in monosodium glutamate. Kanzei Chuo Bunsekishoho.1977;17:59-62.
8. Man EH, Bada JL. Dietary D-Amino Acids. Ann Rev Nutr.1987;7:209-225.
9. Konno R, Oowada T, Ozaki A, Iida T, Niwa A, Yasumura Y, Mizutani T. Origin of D-alanine present in urine of mutant mice lacking D-amino-acid oxidase activity. Am J Physiol. 1993;265:G699-G703.
10. Sjostrom LB. Flavor potentiators. In: Furia TE, CRC Handbook of Food Additives. Cleveland: CRC Press, 1972: 513-521.
11. Rundlett KL, Armstrong DW. Evaluation of free D-glutamate in processed foods. Chirality. 1994;6:277-282.
12. Food Chemical News, Dec 2, 1996. p24-25.
13. Food Chemical News, May 31, 1993. p16.